Kossel Effect in Periodic Multilayers

Abstract : The Kossel effect is the diffraction by a periodically structured medium, of the characteristic X-ray radiation emitted by the atoms of the medium. We show that multilayers designed for X-ray optics applications are convenient periodic systems to use in order to produce the Kossel effect, modulating the intensity emitted by the sample in a narrow angular range defined by the Bragg angle. We also show that excitation can be done by using photons (X-rays), electrons or protons (or charged particles), under near normal or grazing incident geometries, which makes the method relatively easy to implement. The main constraint comes from the angular resolution necessary for the detection of the emitted radiation. This leads to small solid angles of detection and long acquisition times to collect data with sufficient statistical significance. Provided this difficulty is overcome, the comparison or fit of the experimental Kossel curves, i.e., the angular distributions of the intensity of an emitted radiation of one of the element of the periodic stack, with the simulated curves enables getting information on the depth distribution of the elements throughout the multilayer. Thus the same kind of information obtained from the more widespread method of X-ray standing wave induced fluorescence used to characterize stacks of nanometer period, can be obtained using the Kossel effect.
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Karine Le Guen, Jean-Michel André, Meiyi Wu, Vita Ilakovac, Franck Delmotte, et al.. Kossel Effect in Periodic Multilayers. Journal of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, American Scientific Publishers, 2019, 19 (1), pp.593 - 601. ⟨10.1166/jnn.2019.16472⟩. ⟨hal-01909419⟩

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