Du monde mécanique à l'univers physique. Pour une histoire de la cosmologie à l'âge classique autour de Leçons sur les hypothèses cosmogoniques de Henri Poincaré (1911)

Abstract : This study takes as a primary source Lectures on Cosmogonic Hypotheses of Henri Poincaré, which was originally his course at the Sorbonne and one of his last publications. With the main objective to understand the cosmological thinking of Poincaré and its place in the history of cosmology, I propose an introduction to Lectures and its historical and philosophical reading around two axes: classical cosmology and Poincaré's philosophy. The first part is devoted to Classical Science to show how it seeks both the possibility of a mechanistic cosmogony and the impossibility of a cosmology as a science. This ambivalence can be seen in authors of the 17th and 18th centuries, especially Kant and Laplace with their cosmogonic hypothesis, as well as in the 19th century, when cosmological thinking remained speculative and restricted to the solar system, despite the advance of astronomy and physics, both in theory and observation. The second part suggests a systematic reading of Poincaré's philosophy from three philosophical books composed and edited by himself such as Science and Hypothesis. The reading proceeds in three steps, divided by a chronological order which is also thematic and problematic: (1) stability and mechanism, questioned by thermodynamics and probability theory (before 1900); (2) law and principle of mechanics and physics, especially the principle of relativity and the second principle of thermodynamics (1900-1905); 3 ° space, in the light of the new mechanics and the kinetic theory of gases (after 1905). Each problem shows its own cosmological moment that remains at the conceptual rather than the concrete level. Thus Poincaré is led to cosmogonic hypotheses, ending with a philosophy rather than a cosmology.
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Jeesun Rhee. Du monde mécanique à l'univers physique. Pour une histoire de la cosmologie à l'âge classique autour de Leçons sur les hypothèses cosmogoniques de Henri Poincaré (1911). Philosophie. Université Sorbonne Paris Cité, 2018. Français. ⟨NNT : 2018USPCC126⟩. ⟨tel-02361067⟩

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